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John McDonald ; Positions: Shortstop, Second Baseman and Third Baseman ; Bats: Right ; Throws: Right ; Born: September 24, in New London, CT us. Sir John Alexander Macdonald GCB PC QC was the first prime minister of Canada, serving from to and from to The dominant figure of. We are putting together a day with the. APPLE MACBOOK PRO 17 INCH LATE 2011 MBP This article explains Panel. Cookies are disabled, are spent on feature and have. File Manager Manage waiting until the only and is. In the same all hardware, listing them on the weekly report. Any PC can are for the X windows protocol.

When Parliament convened in , the Conservatives were confident and the Liberals defensive. Macdonald even campaigned in Quebec, which he had rarely done, leaving speechmaking there to Cartier. The final days of the 3rd Canadian Parliament were marked by explosive conflict, as Macdonald and Tupper alleged that MP and railway financier Donald Smith had been allowed to build the Pembina branch of the CPR connecting to American lines as a reward for betraying the Conservatives during the Pacific Scandal.

The altercation continued even after the Commons had been summoned to the Senate to hear the dissolution read, as Macdonald spoke the final words recorded in the 3rd Parliament: "That fellow Smith is the biggest liar I ever saw! The election was called for September 17, Fearful that Macdonald would be defeated in Kingston, his supporters tried to get him to run in the safe Conservative riding of Cardwell ; having represented his hometown for 35 years, he stood there again.

In the election, Macdonald was defeated in his riding by Alexander Gunn , but the Conservatives swept to victory. His acceptance of office vacated his parliamentary seat, and Macdonald decided to stand for the British Columbia seat of Victoria , where the election was to be held on October Macdonald was duly returned for Victoria, [] although he had never visited either Marquette or Victoria. Part of the National Policy was implemented in the budget presented in February Under that budget, Canada became a high-tariff nation like the United States and Germany.

In January , Macdonald commissioned politician Nicholas Flood Davin to write a report regarding the industrial boarding-school system in the United States. It made the case for a cooperative approach between the Canadian government and the church to implement the "aggressive assimilation" pursued by President of the United States , Ulysses S. By , there were 61 schools in operation.

By the s, Macdonald was becoming frailer, but he maintained his political acuity. In , he secured the "Intoxicating Liquors Bill" which took the regulation system away from the provinces, in part to stymie his foe Premier Mowat. In his own case, Macdonald took better control of his drinking and binges had ended. Donald Smith later Lord Strathcona was a major partner in the syndicate, but because of the ill will between him and the Conservatives, Smith's participation was initially not made public, though it was well-known to Macdonald.

Macdonald was returned for the Ontario riding of Carleton. The transcontinental railroad project was heavily subsidised by the government. The entire project was extremely costly, especially for a nation with only 4. The terrain in the Rocky Mountains was difficult and the route north of Lake Superior proved treacherous, as tracks and engines sank into the muskeg.

The Northwest again saw unrest. Riel, who lived in exile in the United States since , journeyed to Regina with the connivance of Macdonald's government, who believed he would prove a leader they could deal with. Macdonald put down the rebellion with militia troops transported by rail, and Riel was captured, tried for treason, convicted, and hanged. Macdonald refused to consider reprieving Riel, who was of uncertain mental health. The hanging of Riel was controversial, [] and alienated many Quebecers from the Conservatives and they were, like Riel, Catholic and culturally French Canadian ; they soon realigned with the Liberals.

The CPR was almost bankrupt, but its role in rushing troops to the crisis showed that it was helpful to maintain British control of the territory and Parliament provided money for its completion. In , another dispute arose over fishing rights with the United States.

Americans fishermen had been using treaty provisions allowing them to land in Canada to take on wood and water as a cover for clandestine inshore fishing. Several vessels were detained in Canadian ports, to the outrage of Americans, who demanded their release. Macdonald sought to pass a Fisheries Act which would override some of the treaty provisions, to the dismay of the British, who were still responsible for external relations.

The British government instructed the Governor General, Lord Lansdowne , to reserve the bill for Royal Assent, effectively placing it on hold without vetoing it. After considerable discussion, the British government allowed Royal Assent at the end of , and indicated it would send a warship to protect the fisheries if no agreement was reached with the Americans. Fearing continued loss of political strength as poor economic times continued, Macdonald planned to hold an election by the end of , but had not yet issued the writ when an Ontario provincial election was called by Liberal Ontario Premier Oliver Mowat.

The provincial election was seen as a bellwether for the federal poll. Despite considerable campaigning by Macdonald, Mowat's Liberals were re-elected in Ontario and increased their majority. During the campaign, the Quebec provincial Liberals formed a government four months after the October Quebec election , forcing the Conservatives from power in Quebec City. Nevertheless, Macdonald and his cabinet campaigned hard in the winter election, with Tupper the new High Commissioner to London postponing his departure to try to bolster Conservative votes in Nova Scotia.

The Liberal leader, Edward Blake , ran an uninspiring campaign, and the Conservatives were returned nationally with a majority of 35, winning easily in Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Manitoba. The Tories also took a narrow majority of Quebec's seats despite resentment over Riel's hanging. Macdonald became MP for Kingston once again. Blake resigned after the defeat and was replaced by Wilfrid Laurier.

Under Laurier's early leadership, the Liberals, who previously supported much of the National Policy, campaigned against it and called for "unrestricted reciprocity", or free trade, with the United States. Macdonald was willing to see some reciprocity with the United States, but was reluctant to lower many tariffs. Macdonald called an election for March 5, The year-old prime minister collapsed during the campaign, and conducted political activities from his brother-in-law's house in Kingston.

The Conservatives gained slightly in the popular vote, but their majority was reduced to After the election, Laurier and his Liberals grudgingly accepted the National Policy; when Laurier later became prime minister, he adopted it with only minor changes. In May , Macdonald suffered a stroke which left him partially paralysed and unable to speak.

He was buried in Cataraqui Cemetery in Kingston, [] his grave near that of his first wife, Isabella. Macdonald served just under 19 years as prime minister, a length of service only surpassed by William Lyon Mackenzie King.

Macdonald Day, but the day is not a federal holiday and generally passes unremarked. A number of sites associated with Macdonald are preserved. His gravesite has been designated a National Historic Site of Canada. Macdonald's biographers note his contribution to establishing Canada as a nation.

Swainson suggests that Macdonald's desire for a free and tolerant Canada became part of its national outlook and contributed immeasurably to its character. Historian James Daschuk acknowledges Macdonald's contributions as a founding figure of Canada, but states "He built the country. But he built the country on the backs of the Indigenous people. A spokesperson for the Scottish government stated: "We acknowledge controversy around Sir John A Macdonald's legacy and the legitimate concerns expressed by Indigenous communities".

Macdonald was awarded the following honorary degrees :. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the Canadian prime minister. For people with similar names, see John Macdonald disambiguation and John Alexander Macdonald disambiguation.

The Right Honourable Sir. Macdonald, c. John Alexander Mcdonald [a]. Isabella Clark. Agnes Bernard. Cabinet offices held. Leadership offices held. Parliamentary offices held. Extant parties. Historical parties. Other organizations. See also: Electoral history of John A. See Gwyn , p. Happy Haggis. Archived from the original on August 2, Retrieved June 29, Macdonald was a bit of a drunk, but it's largely forgotten how hard he hit the bottle — National Post".

National Post. The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. University of Regina. Archived from the original on October 13, Retrieved March 25, National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

Archived PDF from the original on March 5, Retrieved July 1, Report on industrial schools for Indians and half-breeds microform Report. Archived from the original on May 29, Retrieved July 11, May 31, Archived from the original PDF on July 6, Retrieved June 28, Macdonald's birthday?

Toronto Star. Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved December 30, Macdonald a white supremacist? Archived from the original on October 21, Canada's History. ISSN Retrieved on July 21, Parks Canada. Government of Canada. December 20, Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved March 6, Retrieved on March 22, October 7, Archived from the original on November 12, Retrieved September 7, Retrieved on March 13, Sir John Alexander, P.

Parliament of Canada. Archived from the original on August 22, Retrieved September 8, Bank of Canada. May Archived PDF from the original on August 6, Retrieved December 17, March 8, Archived from the original on March 8, Retrieved March 9, Macdonald toonie to celebrate 1st PM's th birthday". Archived from the original on May 5, August 15, Archived from the original on January 28, Retrieved December 3, Directory of Federal Heritage Designations.

Macdonald Gravesite. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved March 21, October 27, Archived from the original on December 11, Macdonald by John Dann". Landmarks — Public Art in the Capital Region. Archived from the original on July 10, Retrieved July 2, August 4, Retrieved on March 20, Macdonald's Kingston". Kingston Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 24, Retrieved February 20, Macdonald statue removed from Kingston's City Park".

June 18, Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved June 19, Macdonald statue removed from Victoria City Hall". CBC News. August 11, Archived from the original on August 11, Retrieved August 11, August 30, Macdonald toppled during defund the police protest". CTV News. Archived from the original on August 30, Retrieved August 30, Macdonald in downtown Montreal".

August 29, Macdonald statue defaced overnight". Archived from the original on March 11, Retrieved March 26, Archived from the original on April 4, Macdonald's name from book prize". Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved August 25, Macdonald: report".

Queen's University at Kingston. September 14, Archived PDF from the original on February 27, Retrieved May 21, Alumni Oxonienses: the Members of the University of Oxford, Oxford: Parker and Co. Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved September 29, Stewart, ed. The Encyclopedia of Canada. Toronto: University Associates of Canada. Archived from the original on August 1, University of Toronto. Archived PDF from the original on August 21, Retrieved September 6, Canada portal Politics portal.

Main article: List of books about Prime Ministers of Canada. This author lived Since the copyright has run out, there exist today many reprints. Robert Baldwin. John Sandfield Macdonald. Sir Allan Napier MacNab. George Brown. Sir John J. Alexander Mackenzie. Antoine Dorion. David Mills. Edgar Dewdney. Thomas White. Archibald McLelan. Charles Carrol Colby.

John Henry Pope. Mackenzie Bowell acting. Alexander Gunn. Joseph Ryan. Francis James Roscoe. Edmund Hooper. David W. John Rochester. George Dickinson. James H. Prime ministers of Canada. Laurent Diefenbaker Pearson P. Trudeau Clark P. Category Portal. Leaders of the Conservative Party of Canada and its antecedents. Grey interim Day Reynolds interim Harper.

Ministers of Justice and Attorneys General. Laurent Ilsley St. Ministers of the Interior. Archibald Howe Aikins acting Gibbs. Campbell Laird Scott acting Mills J. Macdonald Macpherson White J. Macdonald acting Dewdney Daly H. Ministers of Transport. Cardin Duranleau Gendron Howe. Cannon Baird Strahl Lebel. Raitt Garneau Alghabra. Superintendents-General of Indian Affairs. Presidents of the Privy Council. Leaders of the Official Opposition in Canada. Attorney General of Ontario. Boulton Robinson H.

Boulton Jameson Hagerman Draper. Draper Baldwin Richards J. Macdonald J. Authority control. CiNii Japan. Categories : John A. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history. This Month in Sports Reference Find out when we add a feature or make a change. Do you have a sports website? Or write about sports? We have tools and resources that can help you use sports data. Find out more. We present them here for purely educational purposes.

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His first wife, his cousin Isabella Clark, was an invalid during most of their married life and died in His first son died at the age of 13 months, while a second son, Hugh John born in survived. Sadly, Mary was afflicted with hydrocephalus and never walked, although she lived to Macdonald entered politics at the municipal level, serving as alderman in Kingston — He took an increasingly active part in Conservative politics and in at age 29 was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada to represent Kingston.

Parties and government were in a state of transition; a modern departmental structure had begun to evolve, but the British government had not yet agreed to responsible government in British North America, and the role of the Governor General was still prominent.

In this context Macdonald's political views proved cautious; he defended the imperial prerogative and state support of denominational education, and opposed the abolition of primogeniture which stipulated that when a property owner died without leaving a will, his eldest son would inherit everything. Above all, he emerged as a shrewd political tactician who believed in the pursuit of practical goals by practical means. His obvious intelligence and ability brought him his first Cabinet post as receiver general in in the administration of W.

Draper , which was defeated in the general election that year. Macdonald remained in Opposition until the election of , after which he was involved in the creation of a new political alliance, the Liberal-Conservative Party. This new party brought together the Conservatives with an already existing alliance between Upper Canadian Reformers and the French Canadian majority political bloc, the Bleus.

Once returned to office, Macdonald assumed the prestigious post of attorney general of Upper Canada. During the years —64 Macdonald faced growing opposition in Canada West formerly Upper Canada to the political union with Canada East formerly Lower Canada ; in the Province of Canada had been created, uniting the two colonies under one parliament. By the political and sectional forces in the province were deadlocked, and Macdonald reluctantly accepted Brown's proposal for a new coalition of Conservatives, Clear Grits , and Bleus, who would work together for constitutional change.

While conceding the necessity of a federal arrangement to accommodate strong racial, religious and regional differences, Macdonald's preference was for a strong, highly centralized, unitary form of government. Macdonald took a leading role in the drafting of a federal system in which the central government held unmistakable dominance over the provincial governments. His great constitutional expertise, ability and knowledge were quickly recognized by the imperial government.

During his first administration —73, Macdonald became a "nation builder. These undertakings involved unprecedented expenditures of public funds and did not proceed without incident. Manitoba entered the union following an insurrection led by Louis Riel against the takeover of the area by the Dominion government, thereby forcing Macdonald's government to grant provincial status much sooner than had been intended and to accept a system of separate schools and the equality of the French and English languages.

Macdonald's involvement in the negotiations for a contract to build the Canadian Pacific Railway to British Columbia involved him eventually in the Pacific Scandal. During the election large campaign contributions had been made to him and his colleagues by Sir Hugh Allan , who was to have headed the railway syndicate. Macdonald claimed that his "hands were clean" because he had not profited personally from his association with Allan, but his government was forced to resign in late and in the election of was defeated.

Some of these political problems stemmed from the fact that he, like many of his contemporaries, was at times a heavy drinker. By his own admission, Macdonald could not recall periods of time during the election and the negotiations with Allan. His drinking subsequently became more moderate.

Fortunately for Macdonald his defeat in coincided with the onset of a business depression in Canada, which gave the Liberal administration of Alexander Mackenzie a reputation for being ineffectual. He remained prime minister for the rest of his life. The promised changes in tariff policy were introduced in and frequently revised in close collaboration with leading manufacturers; this became the basis for Macdonald's National Policy , a system which protected Canadian manufacturing through the imposition of high tariffs on foreign imports, especially from the United States.

Appealing to Canadian nationalist and anti-American sentiment, it became a permanent feature of Canadian economic and political life. However, the economy as a whole continued to suffer slow growth, and the effects of the policy were uneven. The great national project of Macdonald's second administration was the completion of the transcontinental CPR, an extremely difficult and expensive undertaking that required extensive government subsidization. Macdonald played a central role in making the railway a reality.

Its completion in November made possible the future settlement of the West see Canadian Pacific Railway. The physical linking of the Canadian community was accompanied by the first steps towards eventual autonomy in world affairs. Macdonald did not foresee Canadian independence from Britain but rather a partnership with the mother country. Yet during his time in office Canada moved closer to independence.

Macdonald himself represented Canada on the British commission that negotiated the Treaty of Washington of The last stage of Macdonald's public career was plagued by difficulties. In addition, Ontario Premier Oliver Mowat launched a series of successful legal challenges to the powers of the central government, resulting in a federal system that was much less centralized than Macdonald had intended. The federal power of disallowance , which enabled the federal Cabinet to cancel provincial legislation, had been freely used during the early days of the Dominion, but was virtually abandoned by the end of the 19th century due to provincial opposition.

Macdonald's contribution to the development of the Canadian nation far exceeded that of any of his contemporaries, yet he was not by nature an innovator. Confederation , the CPR, and the protective tariff were not his ideas, but he was brilliant and tenacious in achieving his goals once convinced of their necessity. As a politician he early developed shrewdness and ingenuity. He kept a remarkable degree of personal control over the functioning of the Conservative party and was adept in using patronage for political advantage.

He was a highly partisan politician, partly because he genuinely believed it was essential to maintain certain political courses. He was particularly concerned with maintaining the British connection to Canada — including the tradition of parliamentary supremacy — against the threat of American economic and political influences, such as the doctrine of constitutional supremacy. Macdonald was an Anglophile, but he also became a Canadian nationalist who had great faith in the future of Canada.

His overriding national preoccupations were unity and prosperity. An speech summed up his lifelong political creed and political goals: "One people, great in territory, great in resources, great in enterprise, great in credit, great in capital. As both prime minister and minister of Indian Affairs , Macdonald was responsible for Indigenous policy, including the development of the residential school system and increasingly repressive measures against Indigenous populations in the West.

To Macdonald, the building of the CPR took priority over almost everything else. According to historian James Daschuk, Canadian officials withheld food from Indigenous people until they moved to reserves, thus clearing the land needed for railway construction — thousands died. Yet, Macdonald also tried to extend the federal vote to all Indigenous males, as long as they met the same conditions as other British subjects.

Under his proposal, they would not have to give up Indian status in order to vote as was the case under previous legislation. However, it excluded all Indigenous men in the West — this was likely influenced by the North-West Resistance of In , the legislation was repealed and many Indigenous men were again disqualified.

Although Macdonald proposed extending the vote to all Indigenous males, he at the same time passed legislation to exclude those of Chinese origin. In the s, around 15, Chinese labourers helped to build the Canadian Pacific Railway — working in harsh conditions for little pay, they suffered greatly and historians estimate that at least died.

Their employment had caused controversy, particularly in British Columbia , where politicians worried about the potential economic and cultural impact of this influx of Chinese workers. Macdonald, however, defended their employment in constructing the railway. While some have accused him of racism , others argue that he was quite progressive by the standards of the time.

One of the most influential and important Canadians of all time, Macdonald was not without flaws. New generations and scholars continue to examine and debate his political ruthlessness, as well as his Indigenous policies and his approach to Chinese immigration. Show all 29 episodes. Show all 8 episodes. Nikita TV Series stunts - 2 episodes, - stunt performer - 2 episodes, - stunt cop - 1 episode, stunt driver - 1 episode, stunt double - 1 episode, - Til Death Do Us Part Show all 6 episodes.

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Star citizen armor Under Laurier's early leadership, the Liberals, who previously supported much of the National Policy, campaigned against it and called for "unrestricted reciprocity", or free trade, with the United States. Assemblymember John T. One of Brown's john mcdonald demands was representation by population, which would lead to Canada West having more seats; this was bitterly opposed by Canada East. Substantial sums went to Cartier, who waged an expensive fight to try to retain his seat in Montreal East he was defeated, but was subsequently returned for the Manitoba seat of Provencher. John returned to Canada after six months and Isabella remained in the United States for three link. Preceded by Francis James Roscoe.
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Backhoe Similarity Scores Explanation of Similarity Scores. Main article: List of books about Prime Ministers of Canada. Macdonald and the Conservatives saw their majority reduced from 35 to 8. Macdonald returned home to defend the Treaty of Washington against a john mcdonald firestorm. Inanother dispute arose over fishing rights with the United States. More McDonald Pages.
John mcdonald Macdonald had once been tepid on the question of westward expansion of the Canadian provinces; as prime minister, he became a strong supporter of a bicoastal Canada. Immediately upon Confederation, he sent commissioners to London who in due course successfully negotiated the transfer of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to Canada. Preceded by John Henry Pope. Retrieved July 2, As Macdonald did not mention her in his letters home, the circumstances of their meeting are not known. Archived PDF from the original on August 6, Sign up for the free Stathead newsletter and get scores, news john mcdonald notes in your inbox every day.
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